Literature Review for Bedside Reporting



Bedside reporting is being transformed into a regular part of hospital protocol for distinct reasons. It has been shown to give the patients a better outcome and be an effective part of the treatment plan. It keeps the information provided to the new nurse as up-to-date as possible and allows for additional treatment measures to be added (Callaway et al, 2018). When patients come into the hospital for care needs, their trust is put into the healthcare staff. One of the ways trust is built is by use of frequent communication and giving the patient autonomy over their healthcare decisions. One way to do this is by using bedside reporting instead of nurses providing each other report separate from the patient. Studies have shown that bedside reporting not only increases patient safety by enhancing communication between the patient and nurse but also increased patient satisfaction. If a patient feels their nurses have their best interest and that trust is built, then they will choose to go to that healthcare organization (Mitchell et al, 2018). During the process of bedside report, the patient’s health concerns are addressed and the nurse coming on has a visual of the patient’s status. This provides a chance for questions to be asked and for answers to be given that can prevent mistakes from being made. Additional needs can also be discovered which will better a patient’s hospital stay and enhance the value of the healthcare organization (Kluwer, 2017).


When patients leave the hospital, they are given an HCAHPS survey, known as the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey, to fill out and return. One important portion of the HCAHPS is the patient satisfaction section (Orique, et al, 2017). The results of the HCAHPS are particularly important because it is what patients use as a reference to decide which hospital to choose to receive their healthcare. One of the areas that can hurt the results of the patient satisfaction section on this survey is the lack of communication. Nurses consistently communicating with their patients will make patients feel as though their treatment plans are being followed (Chakraborty and Church, 2020).



Current Evidence-Based Literature

Nurses giving change of shift report at the patient’s bedside has been shown to increase patient satisfaction, making it so patients feel more involved in their care. According to an article called “The Secrets to Successful Nurse Bedside Shift Report Implementation and Sustainability”, several studies have been conducted on bedside reporting that showed positive results. Patients have reported having increased participation in their care and building a better relationship with their nurse. About 2% of patients had complaints, which included not understanding some of the medical statements said by the nurses and being woken up when the nurses came into their room to provide report. This is an incredibly low percentage compared to the 49% of patients that appreciated the nurses giving report at their bedside (Dorvil, 2018).


Bedside reporting has been shown to increase patient satisfaction by providing an opportunity for patients to speak with their nurse. An exceptionally large part of patient satisfaction is communication with the healthcare team, which nurses can enhance. Patient satisfaction with their hospital stay has been linked to consistent communication with the medical staff. If patients are not given enough information about their medical concerns or treatment plan, they begin to lose trust in the staff. It is expected of the nurses to keep the patient up to date on the interventions that are being taken for their care and what the results are for any tests that have been given (Suhron, 2020). Studies have been conducted to rule out the effects of bedside reporting on patient safety or readmission rates, but it has been shown to have a positive impact by involving the patients in their care (Malfait et al, 2020). When the nurses are giving report to each other at that patient’s bedside, the patient will feel they are having their needs met and the nurses will be able to clarify any medical information for the patient as well as their families. Survey results can be affected negatively if the patients feel they were not given the time needed for their questions to be answered and have open lines of communication.



Some barriers have been met in some hospitals when attempting to initiate bedside report. Studies have shown some issues that are found when initiating bedside report are not having enough time to provide a proper report at the bedside and nurses being worried about patients’ perception of being included in change of shift report (Neelima et al, 2020). Nurses may feel the patient may ask a question that they do not know the answer to or may not want to give the results to a test that the doctor has not reviewed. This may limit the amount of information that is said during change of shift report when the nurses are in front of the patient. A study was done that included the United States, Italy, Australia, and the United Kingdom on what the patient thinks about bedside report. The results showed that it made patients feel included and that their care was based on their needs (Bressan et al, 2019). By providing adequate education to the acute care nurses, the importance and benefits of bedside reporting can be better understood.



Application of Evidence-Based Literature

By realizing what the barriers can be, interventions can be implemented to overcome them. One way to overcome nurses being afraid of what the patient will think about report being given at their bedside is by using papers to take notes throughout the shift so essential information can be gathered. Some patients may ask questions that are difficult to answer or not see why they are being included in the change of shift report. The more clarification that can be given to the nurse coming on, the more accurate the information which will leave little room to question. Also, if the patient was uncertain about something in their treatment plan, the answer can be presented by using the SBAR papers (McAllen et al, 2018). Another issue that was found was a lack of education about what a proper bedside report consists of. By providing additional education to the nursing staff on what to include and why it’s so important, there will be less confusion about why it is being implemented. Concerns can also be addressed to ensure bedside reporting will be done (Boshart et al, 2018).


Studies show the benefits of increased collaboration among members of the healthcare team and including the patient when discussing the treatment plan. Patients have stated they feel they do not speak with the doctor enough during their stay and the nurses have not increased the lines of communication which makes them feel they are left in the dark about their medical care (Gonzalo et al, 2016). Benefits have even been shown when students are being educated at the patient’s bedside. This includes patient involvement and interaction. Not only do the students learn by performing care hands-on, but it provides an opportunity for the patient to have a meaningful conversation (Al-Swailmi et al, 2016). With these methods of taking education and discussions at the patient’s bedside, not only is there more interaction but there is also another pair of eyes of the patient. The patient’s non-verbal cues can be assessed and if there is a problem, such as the confused patient trying to get out of bed, additional assistance can be provided. It has been discovered that patients link their safety in the hospital with increased communication and engagement. Patients must be involved in their care throughout their hospital stay (Duhn et al, 2020). Communication is key when caring for someone whose health is in recovery.



Conclusion

Change of shift report should always be done at the patient’s bedside because of how it increases patient satisfaction during their hospital stay. When nurses use an SBAR format to provide information on the patient’s medical state, the patient can ask questions and be given additional information about any test results they were waiting on. Nurses will be able to have additional eyes on the patient and have an opportunity to address any of the patient’s needs. Patients are also able to provide the nurse with any information that’s important to know, such as how they are feeling and if anything is needed at that time. Bedside reporting should be initiated and be part of the nursing process to ensure there is a strong relationship between the patients and their nurses. It is also part of the HCAHPS survey in the patient satisfaction section. If the scores begin to drop, then patients will choose other hospitals for their care. Increasing the lines of communication must be initiated so patients will know they are being well cared for and have an overall sense of well-being.





References

Al-Swailmi, F., Khan, I., Mehmood, Y. et al. (2016). Students’ perspective of bedside teaching:

A qualitative study. Pak J Med Sci, 32(2), 351-355.

Boshart, B. Knowlton, M. & Whichello, R. (2016). Reimplementing bedside shift report at a

community hospital. Nursing Management. DOI:

10.1097/01.NUMA.0000508265.42099.cc

Bressan, V., Cadorin, L., Stevanin, S. & Palese, A. (2019). Patient experiences of bedside

handover: Findings from a meta-synthesis. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences,

33(3), 556-568.

Callaway, C., Cunningham, C., Grover, S., Steele, K., McGlynn, A. & Sribanditmongkol, V.

(2018). Patient handoff processes: Implementation and effects of bedside handoffs, the

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Chakraborty, S. & Church, M. (2020). Social media hospital ratings and HCAHPS survey

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Dorvil, B. (2018). The secrets to successful nurse bedside shift report implementation and

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Duhn, L., Godfrey, C. & Medves, J. (2020). Scoping review of patients’ attitudes about their role and behaviours to ensure safe care at the direct care level. Health Expectations, 23(5),

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Gonzalo, J., Himes, J., McGillen, B., Shifflet, B. & Lehmen, E. (2016). Interprofessional

collaborative care characteristics and the occurrence of bedside interprofessional rounds:

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Kluwer, W. (2017). Bedside Shift Reports Can save Lives. Health. Retrieved from

https://www.wolterskluwer.com/en/epxert-insights/bedside-shift-reports-can-save-lives

Malfait, S., Eeckloo, K., Opdorp, L., Biesen, W. & Hecke, A. (2020). The impact of bedside

handovers on relevant clinical indicators: A match-controlled multicentre

longitudinal study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 76, 2104-2112.

McAllen, E., Stephens, K., Swanson-Biearman, B., Kerr, K. & Whiteman, K. (2018). Moving

shift report to the bedside: An evidence-based quality improvement project. Online

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Mitchell, A., Gudeczauskas, K., Therrien, A. & Zauher, A. (2018). Bedside reporting is a key

to communication. Journal of Healthcare Communications, 3(1:13), 1-3.

Neelima, Y., Begum, J., Ali, S. et al (2020). Perceived barriers of communication between

nurses and patients in a tertiary care hospital. Indian Journal of Public Health

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Orique, S., Patty, C., Sandidge, A., Camarena, E. & Newsome, R. (2017). Quantifying missed

nursing care using the hospital consumer assessment of healthcare providers and

systems (HCAHPS) survey. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 47(12), 616-622.

Suhron, M. (2020). Communication model to increase patient satisfaction: Evidence from

Indonesia hospital. Journal of Public Health Research and Development, 11(4), 840-845.



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